Art Class 9 - 1st Quarter (2023)

Western and classical art traditions

  • ancient art
  • Classic art
  • Medieval art
  • principles of art
  • Procedure:
    • painting and/or drawing
    • sculpture and assemblage
    • Assembly of an exhibit
    • concept
    • Contents / Labels Physical layout

Western classical art traditions

Prehistoric Era

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Prehistoric includes all human existence before the emergence of writing. Their art is of interest not only to art historians, but also to archaeologists and anthropologists, for whom the art, alongside fossils, pollen and other finds, is just a guide to understanding early human life and culture.

Prehistoric paintings

Their paintings were found in the caves, which may have been their way of communicating with each other. It can also be used for religious or ceremonial purposes. These paintings may be an artifact of the archaeological evidence rather than a true picture of the first man-made art. Prehistoric drawings of animals were usually proportionally correct.

Paintings from ancient Egypt

The purpose of Egyptian paintings is to make the place comfortable after the death of the deceased. In this sense, the themes include the journey to the underworld, where the deceased are introduced to the gods of the underworld through their tutelary deities.

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It emphasizes the importance of life after death and preserving the knowledge of the past.

Most paintings were highly stylized, symbolic, showing the profile view of an animal or person. The main colors used were red, black, blue, gold and green, which come from mineral pigments that can withstand strong sunlight without fading.

Paintings from the Classical Greek Era

Paintings during the Classical era were most commonly found in vases, panels, and tombs. It shows natural figures with dynamic compositions. Most themes were battle scenes, mythological figures, and everyday scenes. It demonstrates an understanding of linear perspective and naturalistic representation.

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The most common methods of Greek painting:

  1. Fresco method of painting water-based pigments on freshly applied plaster, usually on wall surfaces. The colors are made with ground powder pigments in pure water, dried and fixed with a plaster to become a permanent part of the wall. Ideal for murals, durable and has a matte style.
  2. Encaustic - developed by Greek shipbuilders who used the hot wax to fill the ship's cracks. Soon pigments (colors) were added and used to paint a wax hull.


Kerch style, also known as Kerch vases, are red-figure pottery named for the place where they were found.

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Common forms are:

  1. Pelike (wine container)
  2. lekanis (a low bowl with two horizontal handles and a low broad foot)
  3. lebes gamikos (with high handles and lid for carrying the bridal bath)
  4. Krater (bowl for mixing wine and water)

The most common motifs tended to be scenes from women's lives (often overly idyllic), mythological creatures popular with the Black Sea people, or a scene from mythical stories or events. A technique called polychromy was used, combining different colors especially the brilliant one in an artistic way.

Table painting

There are paintings on flat wooden panels. It can either be a small, single piece or several panels joined together. Most panel paintings no longer exist due to their organic composition.

Tomb / wall painting

Tomb or wall paintings were very popular in the classical period. It uses the fresco method of either tempera (water-based) or encaustic (wax). It has a sharp, flat-outlined painting style and, as it uses water-based materials, very few examples survive.

Romanticism paintings

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Most paintings in this period were copied or imitated from Hellenic Greek paintings. The fresco technique was used in colorful backgrounds; Division of the wall into several rectangular areas (tic-tac-toe design); multipoint perspective; and a tropme l'oeil effect.

Roman paintings have a wide variety of subjects, animals, everyday life, still lifes, mythological subjects, portraits and landscapes.

The development of landscape painting is the most important innovation of Roman painting from Greek painting.


It is an artistic process that creates an image by dusting off a collection of small pieces of colored glass, stone or other materials.

This technique is used for decorative art or interior decoration.

Medieval paintings

Byzantine painting

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The lively painting styles invented in Greece and Rome lived on in Byzantium, but this time for Christian subjects.

In the 11th century, the Greek and the Oriental styles seem to mix in sumptuous, imposing images that adorned the churches in large and small forms.

Romanesque painting

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These are mostly mosaics on the walls of the churches, following a strict frontal pose.

It has a remarkable variety of artistic traditions, such as modeling and treatment of faces and draperies, following Byzantine conventions, while the refreshingly decorative feel derives from southern French styles. It also shows traces of Mozarabic (Arabize) influence through elongated oval faces, large staring eyes and long noses, figures in front of flat colored bands and strong outlines.

Gothic paintings

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Painting is limited to illuminating manuscript pages and painting frescoes on the walls of churches in a cosmopolitan style, elegant, mannered and refined.

early sculptures

Prehistoric Sculptures

The materials used in sculptures vary by region and location. Archaeologists believed her sculpture to be the result of natural erosion and not human artistry.

Egyptian Period Sculptures

Symbolic elements such as shapes, hieroglyphs, relative size, location, materials, color, actions, and gestures were widely used. Their tombs required the most extensive use of sculpture.

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The most common materials used for sculpture are wood, ivory and stones.

Characteristics of the sculptures:

  1. Symbolism was used heavily to represent the gods. They were depicted as hybrid creatures with animal heads on human bodies
  2. Relief compositions were arranged in horizontal lines to record an event or depict an action.
  3. Most often the gods were depicted larger than men, kings larger than their followers, the dead larger than the living.
  4. Empty spaces were filled with figures or hieroglyphs
  5. All individual parts were all brought to the representation level and created in writing

Classical sculptures

Greek sculptures

Early Greek sculpture was tense and stiff, their bodies cloaked in enveloping robes. After three centuries of experimentation, Greek sculpture had finally evolved, showing all points of human anatomy and proportion.

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One of the most popular styles of Greek sculpture was the Hellenistic style. Hellenistic denotes a preference in sculpture for more elaborate patterns, mannered arrangement of figures and groups, and an emphasis on depicting movement for dramatic effect.

Roman sculptures

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Most Roman sculptures are made of monumental terracotta. They did not attempt to compete with the free-standing Greek works of history or mythology, but created reliefs in the great Roman triumphal columns with continuous narrative reliefs around them.

Byzantine sculptures

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The dominant themes in Byzantine sculpture are religious scenes, everyday scenes and motifs from nature. Animals were used as symbols (dove, deer, peacock), while some had acrostics (a form of writing where you take the first letter, syllable, or word from different lines and piece them together to read a message) , which had a great theological significance.

Romanesque sculptures

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Some of the famous sculptural pieces are reliquaries, altar fronts, crucifixes and devotional images. Small individual works of art were usually made from precious materials for royal and aristocratic clients. These light devotional images were usually carried in the processions inside and outside the churches

Gothic sculptures

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Gothic sculptures have a greater freedom of style. They were no longer close to the wall, but began to protrude outwards. Characters were given their own poses instead of being placed in specific patterns, and appeared more alive and realistic.

Architecture from the early days

Prehistoric Architecture

Man has developed an architecture based on megaliths (a large rock) from the Greek word lithos (stone) and megas (big). This architecture consists of huge blocks of stone, which were probably intended for burials.

Megalithic monuments have always captured people's imagination. It provided many legends and superstitions. During this time stones and rocks were associated with divinity.

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Three main types of megalithic stones:

  1. Menhir: A huge stone standing vertically on the ground, usually in the center of the field or arranged in rows.
  2. Dolmen: The word dolmen comes from the expression taolmaen, which means "stone table". These structures are in the form of a table composed of two huge standing stones supporting a horizontal huge stone. It is believed to have served as a tomb or as an altar.
  3. Cromlech: a Brythonic word, with "crom" meaning curved or curved and "llech" meaning slab or slabs of stone. Literally, it is a circle of standing stones.

Egyptian architecture

This architectural style was developed during the predynastic period 4,000 BC. developed.

Features of Egyptian architecture:

  1. The structure has thick sloping walls with few openings to provide stability.
  2. The outer and inner walls, columns and pillars were covered with hieroglyphs and picturesque frescoes and carvings in bright colors.
  3. The decorations were symbolic, including scarab (sacred beetle), sun disk and vulture, common motifs (palm leaves, buds, lotus flowers and papyrus plants).
  4. The temples were dedicated to astronomically significant events, such as solstices (from the Latin word sol, meaning sun, and stitium, meaning stillness, since the sun seems to stand still on the first day of winter) and equinoxes (a time or date). , where there is day and night). of equal length) with precise measurements needed to determine the timing of that particular event.

Pyramids of Giza

It is the most important ancient building in the world. The Three Pyramids are the tombs of the three kings of the Fourth Dynasty (2575 to 2465 BC), namely: Khufu (Cheops), to whom the Great Pyramid is attributed; Khafa (Chepren), to whom the pyramid next to the Great Pyramid is attributed; and the smallest is attributed to Menkaura (Mycerinus).


It is a type of Egyptian tomb in the form of a rectangular building with a flat roof and sides sloping outwards. It was made of mud brick or stone.

Greek architecture

Temples consisted of a central shrine or room in a corridor surrounded by a
rows of columns. These buildings were designed in one of three architectural styles
Style or Orders:


Roman architecture

They built sturdy stone structures both for use and to perpetuate their fame.

Emperors built huge halls and arenas for public games, baths
and procession. They built them from gigantic arches of stone, brick, and the like
Concrete or with barrel vault.

Byzantine architecture

It has much in common with early Christian architecture. Mosaic decoration was perfected by the Byzantines, as was the use of clerestory to bring light in through tall windows. Byzantine advances in dome development created a new style in global architecture.

Romanesque architecture

The doors of Romanesque churches are often large portals with sculptures. Wooden or metal doors are surrounded by ornate stone sculptures, arranged in zones to incorporate architectural elements.

Romanesque architecture featured solid masonry walls, semicircular arches and masonry vaults. It is the time of great building activity in Europe, castles, churches and monasteries were built everywhere.

Gothic architecture

This design incorporated two new devices: pointed arches, which allowed builders to build much higher vaulted ceilings, and stone vaults supported on a network of stone ribs supported by piers and clustered columns.


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